Journal of Agricultural Science and Engineering, Vol.2, No.6, Dec. 2016, Pub. Date: Jan. 9, 2017
Water Quality Assessment Upstream of the Great Usuthu River in Swaziland
Pages: 57-65 Views: 47 Downloads: 14
Bruce Roy Thulane Vilane, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
Lungelo Tembe, Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Swaziland, Luyengo Campus, Swaziland.
Rivers are the most important sources of surface water. However their quality is a function of the catchment activities. A study was conducted to investigate river water upstream of the Great Usutu River in Swaziland. The study was an experiment with one treatment; the Great Usutu river water, with two replications. World Health Organization water quality guidelines for domestic water use were used as a control. Water samples were taken from three samplings stations or sites, at Bunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu. The sampling took place in February 2016, which was a rainy season. The samples were collected in the morning and taken for testing Physical (turbidity and pH), Microbiological (E. coli) and chemical (nitrates, hardness and phosphorus) quality on the same. Data analysis was conducted using one-way ANOVA utilizing SPSS computer software (version 20). The results indicated that the physical water quality (mean turbidity) at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu were 265.5 NTU, 209.5 NTU and 129.5 NTU, respectively. The turbidity levels were above the WHO guideline value of 5 NTU, while the mean pH levels at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu were 7.43, 7.27 and 7.90, respectively. The pH levels were within the WHO water quality guidelines value of 6.5-8.5. The microbiological water quality in terms of the mean E. coli at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu were 2538.0 counts/100 ml, 2015.5 counts/100 ml and 1521.5 counts/100 ml, respectively. The river was contaminated with E. coli given the fact that the WHO water quality guideline value for domestic water use is 0 counts/100 ml of E. coli. The chemical water quality in terms of the mean nitrates at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu was 0.02 mg/L, 0.06 mg/L and 0.18 mg/L, respectively. The nitrates in the river water were within the WHO water quality guidelines for domestic use (10 mg/L). The mean hardness on the other hand was 240 mg/L, 950 mg/L and 1100 mg/L at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu, respectively, while the mean river water phosphorus was 1.40 mg/L, 1.70 mg/L and 2.81 mg/L at Bhunya, Lamgabhi and Mhlabubovu, respectively. It was concluded that the river water upstream of the Great Usuthu River was polluted on the basis of the microbiological quality (E. coli) and chemical (hardness, and phosphorus) reflected above.
Assessment, Water Quality, Upstream, Great Usuthu River, Swaziland
Adejuwon, J. O., and Adelakun, M. A. (2012). Physiochemical and bacteriological analysis of surface water in Ewekoro Local Government Area of Ogun State, Nigeria. Int. J. Water. Res. Environ. Eng., 4 (3): 66-72.
Akpoveta, O. V.; Okoh, B. E. and Osakwe, S. A. (2011). Quality Assessment of Borehole water in the Vicinity of Benin Edo State and Agbor, Delta State of Nigeria. Current Research in Chemistry; 3 (1) 62-69.
Anonymous, (2015). Benefits of large dams. http://bbmb.gov.in/english/benefit_large_dam.asp. Accessed October, 2016.
Anonymous, (2016). Water quality control: Part 1 – introduction to water quality, hydrological circle, properties of water, sea environment, Baltic Sea. http://www.pg.gda.pl/chem/Dydaktyka/Analityczna/WQC/wqc_p1.pdf. Accessed December, 2016.
Antoniou, M. G.; Armah, A.; De La Cruz, A. A. and Dionysios, D. D. (2005) Cyanotoxins: New generation of water contaminants. Journal of environmental engineering 131.9 (2005): 1239-1243.
APHA. (2005). Standard Methods for Examination of Water and Wastewater, 21st edn, American Public Health Association, Washington DC, USA.
Boussaha, S. and Laifa, A. (2016). Quantitative evaluation of phosphorus dissolved in the water of Bounamoussa River (North Eastern Algeria). Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 8 (2): 505-512. http://www.jocpr.com/articles/quantitative-evaluation-of-phosphorus-dissolved-in-the-water-of-bounamoussa-river-north-eastern-algeria.pdf. Accessed November, 2016.
Carpenter, S. R; Caraco, N. F.; Correll, D. L.; Howarth, R. W.; Sharpley, A. N. and Smith, V. H. (1998). Nonpoint pollution of surface waters with phosphorus and nitrogen. Ecol Appl 1998; 8 (3): 559–68.
CDC, (2016). Global WASH Fast Facts. http://www.cdc.gov/healthywater/global/wash_statistics.html. Accessed December, 2016.
Coompson, J. A. (2014). Global Agriculture and Food Security Program (GAFSP) - Agriculture Productivity and Market Enhancement Project (APMEP). Ministry of Agriculture- Water development. Government of Zambia. http://www.afdb.org/en/projects-and-operations/project-portfolio/project/p-zm-aa0-019/. Accessed December, 2016.
Environmental Protection Agency (Undated). 5.6 Phosphorus. The United Staes Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). https://archive.epa.gov/water/archive/web/html/vms56.html Accessed November, 2016.
EPA, (1986) National Recommended Water Quality Criteria - Aquatic Life Criteria Table: https://www.epa.gov/wqc/national-recommended-water-quality-criteria-aquatic-life-criteria-table. Accessed November, 2016.
Guergueb, S.; Laifa, A.; Djamai, R. and Fadel, D. (2015). Concentration study level of nitrogen and mineral phosphorus eutrophication and impact of the mouth of Wadi El-Kebir East (W.EL-TARF) Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7 (9): 602-608. http://textlab.io/doc/14986449/concentration-study-level-of-nitrogen-and-mineral-phospho. Accessed November, 2016.
Government of Swaziland, (2003). Water Use Registry. Ministry of Natural Resources and Energy, Swaziland Government. Mbabane, Kingdom of Swaziland
Hatch company, (1999) Hatch method 8195. Determination of turbidity by Nephelometry. Revision 2.0. Hach Company 5600. Colorado, USA. www.hach.com/asset-get.downloaden. jsa?code=97811. Accessed November, 2016.
Jarvie, H. P.; Whitton, B. A. and Neal, C. (1998) Nitrogen and phosphorus in east coast British rivers: speciation, sources and biological significance. Sci. Total Environ 1998; 210 - 211: 79 -109.
Murphy, S. (Undated). Basin: General Information on Phosphorus. City of Boulder/USGS Water Quality Monitoring. http://bcn.boulder.co.us/basin/data/BACT/info/TP.html. Accessed November, 2016.
Mwendera, E. J; Manyatsi, A. M; Magwenzi, O and Dlamini, S. M. (2002). Swaziland Water Demand Management Country Study Report. Water Demand Management Program for Southern Africa phase II. Pretoria IUCN.
Nsor, C. A.; Acquah, E. and Braimah, C. A. (2016). Seasonal Dynamics of Physico-chemical Characteristics in Wetlands of Northern Region (Ghana): Implications on the Functional Status. International Journal of Aquatic Science: 2008-8019. Vol. 7, (1) 39-49. http://www.journal-aquaticscience.com/2016%20(1)/Nsor%20et%20al.%20(2016)1.pdf. Accessed December, 2016.
Saleem, M.; Iqbal, J. and Shah, M. H. (2015). Assessment of water quality for drinking/irrigation purpose from Mangla dam, Pakistan. Geochemistry: Exploration, Environment, Analysis. http://geea.geoscienceworld.org/content/early/2015/09/15/geochem2014-336. Accessed December, 2016
Sanctuary, M. (2007). Making water part of economic development: The economic benefits of improved water management and services. http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/waterandmacroecon.pdf. Accessed November, 2016.
Shadeed, S. and Lange, J. (2010). Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine. Water Science and Engineering. 3 (2): 132-143. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S167423701530106X. Accessed November, 2016.
Singh, S. and Mosley, L. M. (2003). Trace elements levels in drinking water on Viti Levu, Fiji Islands. S. Pac. Nat. Sci., 21: 21-34.
Singh, P. K. and Shrivastava, P. (2015). Analysis of water quality of River Narmada. International Journal of Current Research 7 (12). 24073-24076. http://www.journalcra.com/sites/default/files/12343.pdf. Accessed November, 2016
Sivamanikandan, P. and Ahmed, A. J. (2016). Physical and chemical analysis of mullaiperiyar river water in Theni district, Tamilnadu, India Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. App. Sci (2016) 5 (2): 173-180. http://www.ijcmas.com/5-2-16/P.Sivamanikandan%20and%20S.Ahmed%20john.pdf. Accessed November, 2016.
Stewart, R. E. (2016). Agricultural technology: the effects of pollution. https://www.britannica.com/technology/agricultural-technology/The-effects-of-pollution. Accessed December, 2016.
Strahler, A. H. and Strahler, A. (1997). Physical geography science and systems of the human environment. John Willy and Sons. New York, USA.
Tappin, A. D.; Combera, S. and Worsfolda, P. J. (2016). Orthophosphate-P in the nutrient impacted River Taw and its catchment (SW England) between 1990 and 2013. Environ. Sci.: Processes Impacts, 2016, 18, 690-705. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2016/em/c6em00213g#!divAbstract. Accessed November, 2016.
Tornero, V. and Hanke, G. (2016). Chemical contaminants entering the marine environment from sea-based sources: A review with a focus on European seas. Marine Pollution Bulletin. Vol. 112, Issues 1–2, 15: 2016, pp 17–38.
UN, (2016a) Sustainable development goals: Goal 6: Ensure access to water and sanitation for all. United Nations (UN). http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/water-and-sanitation/. Accessed December, 2016.
UN, (2016b). Rate of Environmental Damage Increasing Across the Planet but There Is Still Time to Reverse Worst Impacts if Governments Act Now, UNEP Assessment Says. United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/blog/2016/05/rate-of-environmental-damage-increasing-across-planet-but-still-time-to-reverse-worst-impacts/. Accessed Decamber, 2016. WHO, (2008). Guidelines for Drinking - water Quality, Third edition incorporating the first and second addenda Volume Recommendations, Geneva. World Health Organization (WHO). http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/fulltext.pdf Accessed October, 2016.
WHO, (2010). Hardness in drinking water. Background document for development of WHO guidelines for drinking water quality; 2010. World Health Organization (WHO).www.who.int/water_health/dwg/chemicals/hardness.pdf. Accessed November, 2016.
WHO, (2014). Water and Health Information brief. http://www.un.org/waterforlifedecade/pdf/04_2014_water_and_health_info_brief_eng.pdf. Accessed December, 2016.
WHO, (2015). Lack of sanitation for 2.4 billion people is undermining health improvements. World Health Organization (WHO). http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2015/jmp-report/en/. Accessed December, 2016.
World Water Council, (Undated). Water Supply and Sanitation. http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/library/archives/water-supply-sanitation/ Accessed November, 2016.
Woodford, C. (2015) Water pollution, an introduction. http://www.explainthatstuff.com/waterpollution.html Accessed October, 2016.
World Water Council, (Undated). Water Supply and Sanitation. http://www.worldwatercouncil.org/library/archives/water-supply-sanitation/. Accessed October, 2016.
Water Research Centre, (2014). Phosphates in the Environment. http://water-research.net/index.php/phosphates. Accessed November, 2016.