International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research
Articles Information
International Journal of Preventive Medicine Research, Vol.5, No.1, Mar. 2021, Pub. Date: May 15, 2021
Vaccine Hesitancy Amongst Health Professional Undergraduates in Manipal University College Malaysia During the COVID-19 Pandemic
Pages: 1-14 Views: 112 Downloads: 18
[01] Pavitraa Ramakrishnan, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM), Malacca, Malaysia.
[02] Sabrikresha Ravisha, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM), Malacca, Malaysia.
[03] Ho Wen Huey, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM), Malacca, Malaysia.
[04] Ezzatul Aliyah binti Che Hasan, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM), Malacca, Malaysia.
[05] Malisha Dimithri Marasingha, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM), Malacca, Malaysia.
On 31st of December 2019, Wuhan Municipal Health Commission, China, reported a cluster of cases of pneumonia in Wuhan, Hubei Province which was eventually identified as caused by a novel coronavirus, COVID-19. Since then, the disease had spread all over the world until finally, on March 11th 2020, WHO declared the pandemic status of COVID-19, which is also the first pandemic caused by a coronavirus. As the pandemic grows and has taken millions of lives, pharmaceutical companies such as Pfizer raced to develop an effective vaccine to control the spread of this infection. However, as the vaccines are developed in such a short time, vaccine hesitancy emerged as one of the biggest challenges to be overcome. A cross-sectional study was conducted among the undergraduates students of Manipal University College Malaysia (MUCM) to study the factors affecting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among them. An online questionnaire was distributed to all batches in MUCM and a total of 223 responses were accepted. All the data obtained were analysed using Epi Info version 7.1 software. The statistical tests used in this study were Pearson’s Chi-Square test and multiple logistic regression for the measure of association between the selected factors and resulting COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy. The findings demonstrated 30.9% of the students are vaccine-hesitant with the majority of them (82.6%) are concerned about the side effects of the vaccine. The attitude towards COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination was found to have a significant negative association with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy as suggested by OR of 0.83, p-value <0.001, and 95% CI of 0.78-0.89. Students who come from a household with a monthly income of RM 9,619 and less are found to be more likely to be hesitant on getting vaccinated against COVID-19 as compared to those with higher income households (more than RM 9,619). In summary, almost one-third of MUCM students are categorized as vaccine-hesitant in regards to COVID-19 vaccination. The factors found to influence their decision in receiving the COVID-19 vaccine are their household income, their attitudes towards the disease and its vaccination, and their decision to not get vaccinated in the past.
Vaccine Hesitancy, COVID-19, Medical Student, Cross-sectional study, Malaysia
[01] Murphy J, Vallières F, Bentall RP, Shevlin M, McBride O, Hartman TK, McKay R, Bennett K, Mason L, Gibson-Miller J, Levita L. Psychological characteristics associated with COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and resistance in Ireland and the United Kingdom. Nature communications. 2021 Jan 4; 12 (1): 1-5.
[02] Coronavirus Update (Live): 105,422,292 Cases and 2,294,534 Deaths from COVID-19 Virus Pandemic - Worldometer [Internet]. 2021 [cited 5 February 2021]. Available from: https: //
[03] Amawi H, Abu Deiab GA, A Aljabali AA, Dua K, Tambuwala MM. COVID-19 pandemic: an overview of epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostics and potential vaccines and therapeutics. Therapeutic delivery. 2020 Apr; 11 (4): 245-68.
[04] Dubé E, Laberge C, Guay M, Bramadat P, Roy R, Bettinger JA. Vaccine hesitancy: an overview. Human vaccines & immunotherapeutics. 2013 Aug 8; 9 (8): 1763-73.
[05] Coronavirus Vaccine Tracker [Internet]. 2021 [cited 5 February 2021]. Available from: https: //
[06] Khairy: Malaysia can use Pfizer’s Covid-19 vaccine now as conditional registration granted | Malay Mail [Internet]. 2021 [cited 5 February 2021]. Available from: https: //
[07] Chung N. Vaccination in three phases, says Muhyiddin [Internet]. Free Malaysia Today (FMT). 2021 [cited 5 February 2021]. Available from: https: //
[08] Ten health issues WHO will tackle this year [Internet]. 2021 [cited 5 February 2021]. Available from: https: //
[09] McAteer J, Yildirim I, Chahroudi A. The VACCINES Act: deciphering vaccine hesitancy in the time of COVID-19. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 2020 Jul 28; 71 (15): 703-5.
[10] Bedford H, Attwell K, Danchin M, Marshall H, Corben P, Leask J. Vaccine hesitancy, refusal and access barriers: The need for clarity in terminology. Vaccine. 2018 Oct 22; 36 (44): 6556-8.
[11] Dudley MZ, Privor-Dumm L, Dubé È, MacDonald NE. Words matter: Vaccine hesitancy, vaccine demand, vaccine confidence, herd immunity and mandatory vaccination. Vaccine. 2020 Jan 22; 38 (4): 709-11.
[12] Fournet N, Mollema L, Ruijs WL, Harmsen IA, Keck F, Durand JY, Cunha MP, Wamsiedel M, Reis R, French J, Smit EG. Under-vaccinated groups in Europe and their beliefs, attitudes and reasons for non-vaccination; two systematic reviews. BMC public health. 2018 Dec; 18 (1): 1-7.
[13] Freeman D, Loe BS, Chadwick A, Vaccari C, Waite F, Rosebrock L, Jenner L, Petit A, Lewandowsky S, Vanderslott S, Innocenti S. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the UK: the Oxford coronavirus explanations, attitudes, and narratives survey (Oceans) II. Psychological medicine. 2020 Dec 11: 1-5.
[14] Karlsson LC, Lewandowsky S, Antfolk J, Salo P, Lindfelt M, Oksanen T, Kivimäki M, Soveri A. The association between vaccination confidence, vaccination behavior, and willingness to recommend vaccines among Finnish healthcare workers. PLoS One. 2019 Oct 31; 14 (10): e0224330.
[15] Larson HJ, Schulz WS, Tucker JD, Smith DM. Measuring vaccine confidence: introducing a global vaccine confidence index. PLoS currents. 2015 Feb 25; 7.
[16] Mesch GS, Schwirian KP. Vaccination hesitancy: fear, trust, and exposure expectancy of an Ebola outbreak. Heliyon. 2019 Jul 1; 5 (7): e02016.
[17] Lucia VC, Kelekar A, Afonso NM. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among medical students. Journal of Public Health. 2020 Dec 26.
[18] Teng CCH. Experts: Majority ready to accept Covid-19 vaccine but more awareness needed [Internet]. The Star Online. 2021 [cited 2021Feb17]. Available from: https: //
[19] Survey: 70% Health Workers Will Take Any Covid-19 Vaccine | CodeBlue [Internet]. CodeBlue. 2021 [cited 6 March 2021]. Available from: https: //
[20] Lazarus JV, Ratzan SC, Palayew A, Gostin LO, Larson HJ, Rabin K, Kimball S, El-Mohandes A. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nature medicine. 2020 Oct 20: 1-4.
[21] Pogue K, Jensen JL, Stancil CK, Ferguson DG, Hughes SJ, Mello EJ, Burgess R, Berges BK, Quaye A, Poole BD. Influences on attitudes regarding potential COVID-19 vaccination in the United States. Vaccines. 2020 Dec; 8 (4): 582.
[22] Cvjetkovic SJ, Jeremic VL, Tiosavljevic DV. Knowledge and attitudes toward vaccination: A survey of Serbian students. Journal of infection and public health. 2017 Sep 1; 10 (5): 649-56.
[23] Kazi Abdul M, Khandaker Mursheda F. Knowledge, Attitude and Acceptance of a COVID-19 Vaccine: A Global Cross-Sectional Study.
[24] Fu C, Wei Z, Pei S, Li S, Sun X, Liu P. Acceptance and preference for COVID-19 vaccination in health-care workers (HCWs). MedRxiv. 2020 Jan 1.
[25] Abu-Farha RK, Alzoubi KH, Khabour OF. Public Willingness to Participate in COVID-19 Vaccine Clinical Trials: A Study from Jordan. Patient preference and adherence. 2020; 14: 2451.
[26] Largent EA, Persad G, Sangenito S, Glickman A, Boyle C, Emanuel EJ. US Public Attitudes Toward COVID-19 Vaccine Mandates. JAMA network open. 2020 Dec 1; 3 (12): e2033324-.
[27] Wang J, Jing R, Lai X, Zhang H, Lyu Y, Knoll MD, Fang H. Acceptance of COVID-19 Vaccination during the COVID-19 Pandemic in China. Vaccines. 2020 Sep; 8 (3): 482.
MA 02210, USA
AIS is an academia-oriented and non-commercial institute aiming at providing users with a way to quickly and easily get the academic and scientific information.
Copyright © 2014 - American Institute of Science except certain content provided by third parties.